They have become increasingly popular among institutional investors as they provide a way to trade large volumes of securities without revealing their intentions until after the trade is executed and reported.
What is a Dark Pool?
A dark pool is a private exchange where institutional investors can buy and sell securities without revealing their intentions to the public until after the trade is completed. They are called "dark" because the trades that occur in these pools are not visible to the public, unlike trades that take place on public exchanges.
Dark pools were originally created as a way for institutional investors to trade large volumes of securities without impacting the market. When a large trade is executed on a public exchange, it can affect the price of the security being traded, making it more expensive for the investor to buy or sell the remaining shares. Dark pools allow institutional investors to avoid this problem by trading anonymously with each other.
How do Dark Pools Work?
Dark pools are operated by financial institutions, such as banks or brokerage firms, that act as intermediaries between buyers and sellers. These institutions create private exchanges where their clients can buy and sell securities without revealing their intentions to the public.
When an investor wants to buy or sell a security on a dark pool, they submit an order to their financial institution. The institution then matches the order with another investor who is looking to buy or sell the same security at the same price. The trade is executed, and the financial institution reports the trade to the relevant authorities, such as the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC).
Benefits of Dark Pools
The primary benefit of using dark pools is the ability to trade large volumes of securities without impacting the market. This is particularly important for institutional investors who need to buy or sell large blocks of shares, as the price of the security can be affected by their trade if it is executed on a public exchange.
Dark pools also provide a level of anonymity for institutional investors, which can be beneficial in certain situations. For example, if a large investor is trying to acquire a large stake in a company, they may not want to reveal their intentions to the public until after the transaction is completed. Using a dark pool allows them to keep their intentions secret until after the trade is executed.
Drawbacks of Dark Pools
While dark pools provide benefits to institutional investors, they also have several drawbacks that have led to controversy. One of the main concerns is that dark pools can be used to manipulate the market. Because trades in dark pools are not visible to the public, it is possible for investors to manipulate the price of a security by buying or selling large volumes of shares in a dark pool. This can create a false impression of the market's supply and demand for the security.
Another concern is that dark pools can create a two-tiered market, where institutional investors have access to private exchanges that provide advantages over public exchanges. This can put individual investors at a disadvantage, as they do not have access to the same opportunities as institutional investors.
Controversies Surrounding Dark Pools
Dark pools have been the subject of several controversies in recent years. In 2015, Barclays was fined $70 million for misleading investors about the nature of its dark pool. The bank was accused of favoring high-frequency traders over other investors in its dark pool, which led to accusations of market manipulation.
In 2018, the SEC charged Liquidnet, a dark pool operator, with improperly using its subscribers' confidential trading information to market its services to other subscribers. The SEC alleged that Liquidnet violated the duty of confidentiality it owed to its subscribers by using their confidential information to market its services to other subscribers. Liquidnet settled with the SEC for $2 million without admitting or denying the charges.
The controversies surrounding dark pools have led to increased scrutiny from regulators and calls for greater transparency. Some regulators have called for dark pools to be banned altogether, while others have proposed regulations to increase transparency and prevent market manipulation.
Impact on the Financial Markets
Dark pools have had a significant impact on the financial markets, particularly in recent years as their use has become more widespread. According to some estimates, as much as 40% of all trading in the United States occurs in dark pools.
The impact of dark pools on the financial markets is a subject of debate. Some argue that dark pools have contributed to market fragmentation and reduced transparency, while others argue that they provide benefits to institutional investors and increase market efficiency.
Despite the controversies surrounding dark pools, it is clear that they have become an important part of the financial landscape. As the use of dark pools continues to grow, it is likely that regulators will continue to grapple with the challenges they present and work to strike a balance between the benefits and drawbacks of their use.
The SEC is a government agency responsible for regulating and overseeing the securities industry in the United States.
Angel investors are typically high net worth individuals who invest their own money in early-stage startups.